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April  11, 2007:
The material about Uspensky Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin is added

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Museums and monumets of culture of Moscow

Tsar-Cannon Царь Пушка

"TSAR-CANNON", an artillery gun (mortira), made in 1586 by Russian master Andrey Chohov. It is a monument of foundry art of 16 century It is installed in Moskow Kremlin.

In 1586 in Moscow Cannon court yard which had already had rather large territory on coast of the river Neglinka by this time, under the order of tsar Feodor Ivanovich, was made the huge cannon which got the name "Tsar-Cannon" . The name of it`s founder - foundry master Andrey Chohov - was cast on it`s barrel (for the first time it was seen on the guns which were fixed in Description book of the Smolensk cannon order 1670).

Царь Пушка

length of the " Tsar-cannon" is 5 meters and 34 centimeters, external diameter of the barrel - 120 centimeters, calibre - 890 millimeters. The barrel was made from high-quality bronze and decorated by inscriptions, figured friezes and ornament. On each side of the barrel eight fastenings is arranged for strengthening of ropes when the cannon is moving. There is an inscription above right front fastening: « with God`s will - tsar and grand duke Feodor Ivanovich, sovereign and autocratic master of all great Russia », and a little bit more to the left: « this gun was made in a known great city - Moscow, in  summer of 7094, in the third summer of his reigning. It was made by a gunmaker Ondrej CHohov». On the edge of the barrel is written: « 2400 pood » or 39312 kg - this is the weight of the biggest gun in the world.

Царь ПушкаThe researches of the barrel made during restoration works in 1980 showed that the "Tsar-cannon" belong to the special kind of artillery guns which is close to mortira. Possibly the case-shot was used for shooting. Decorative pig-iron near the "Tsar-cannon", was made in Petersburg at the factory of CHarlz Berd in 1835.  

Most likely, the "Tsar-cannon" never shot, but, undoubtedly, it was made as the fighting gun. Probably, for repulse of attacks of Kaza-Girej armies in 1591.
For almost four hundred years "Tsar-cannon" changed it`s place for many times. Originally it had been installed in the Red square near the Place of execution. After Peter's I order about construction of the Arsenal in Moscow Kremlin, the "Tsar-cannon" was moved to the Kremlin with the help of special skating rinks (in the beginning of 18 century). Wooden parts of the "Tsar-gun" and other guns near the Arsenal burned down in the fire of 1812. And later they were restored at a ship-building factory of Berd in Petersburg (the drawings were made by engineer A.P. Bryullov and general-major P. J.Vitte). The part for a gun "Unicorn" was made simultaneously. They were sent to Moscow in March, 2, 1835, and Berd sent his own master for assembly of gun`s carriages.

The installation required attraction of skilled masters, for what the "tenders" were organized won by the contractor from peasants Michael Vasilev (he requested for the work1400 roubles). In 1835 the "tsar-cannon" was fixed; in 1843 it was moved from the main gate of the Arsenal to an old building of the Armory Museum where had been standing till 1960; later it was installed in the Ivanov's square, near the church of Twelve apostles

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