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April 11, 2007:
The material about Uspensky the Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin is added

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April  12, 2007:
The material about  the Cathedral of Vasily Blazhennogo  is added

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April  11, 2007:
The material about Uspensky the Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin is added

More in detail...


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History of Moscow

Moscow in  XIII - XIV

In the end of XIII century under the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky - Daniel, Moscow became an independent city, capital of a small specific princedom.

The city grew on the trading ways leading to riverheads of Volga, Oka and Dnepr, that became one of the reasons of its fast eminence. Right at the beginning of 14 century Kolomna and Mozhaisk were attached to Moscow, and prince Jury Danilovich got  a label ("yarlik") on great reigning in the Horde.

Ivan I Kalita in 14-15 centuries attached Uglich, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and a number of other cities.

Ivan Danilovich Kalita came into throne of the Moscow princedom in 1325. He conducted the complex diplomatic policy with Golden Horde. Nine times the prince went to khan with generous gifts and khan appointed the Moscow prince to be a Grand duke, a senior prince on Russian land. Tatars had not been visiting Moscow for 40 years after that.

Kalita was the first of Russian princes who conducted serious struggle against the robbers plundering merchant caravans on the roads. Many boyars, merchants and handicraftsmen moved to Moscow from the nearest princedoms. The important event of his reigning became the transferring of a residence of metropolitans of Russian orthodox church (about 1326) from Vladimir to Moscow. Metropolitan Peter, the head of Russian orthodox church, transfered the throne from Vladimir to Moscow and Moscow became a new church capital.

The stone architecture originated in the city. Pskov masters built the first stone cathedrals in the Kremlin,  walls of cathedrals were decorated with paintings. In 1326-1327 the temple of the Assumption of All-holy Mother of God was erected. Metropolitan Peter was burried in that temple. Since then the Uspensky cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin became a tomb of Russian metropolitans and patriarches.

Ivan Kalita could make the Tatar khan to let him collect a tribute from all Russia, the part of the tribute settled in the Moscow cellars.

Russian lands got together around Moscow. Moscow became the political and economic center.

The scourge of Moscow were frequent fires. In 1331 «the city Kremnik was burnt down» - that was the first mention in the chronicles about the Kremlin

In 1339 under Ivan Kalita there was a new Kremlin built on Moskow hill, but still the walls of the fortress were wooden (oak). But these walls were standing there only for 30 years.

It was very dry summer in 1365 (no rains for a long time). There was a fire in the church of All Saints and the flame quickly spread on wooden constructions of Moscow - the city burnt down in 2 hours. The Kremlin also had burned down, after that the fortress was reconstructed, but with the stone walls that time.

Kremlim in history - Growth of small city

The map of Moscow area in XII-XIII

On our pages you can make digression to history Russia , and to the  history Moscow and S-Peterburg

recommended sites:

Internet shop of  excusive Russian souvenires "ATAMAN".
If you want to present a spesial gift to your relatives or friends, want to get really unforgettable memory about your trip or you are interested in the history of russia - this shop is a real find for you
There are history maps, books, souvenires, insignia, heraldry and many other things on this site. This site have the English  version. You can find the link for it in the right top corner of the site

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