History of MoscowMoscow in XII - XIII
In the end of the 1st millenium there were small towns of Slavs - vjatiches and kriviches.
According to the materials of archaeoligical dig in Kremlin and Zaryad'e we can assume, that by the end of 11 century Moscow was a very small town.
The small town appeared around the Borovitsky hill, defensive structures - earth wall with wooden palings and channel with water - were constructed.
There is an assumption, that the small town belonged to boyar Kuchka and was named Kuchkovo. Jury Dolgoruky got it as a result of violent capture. The small town began to be called as Moskov.
first mention in chronicles about Moskov concerns to 1147 when the
prince of Suzdal Jury Vladimirovich Dolgoruky met the prince
Chernigov of Svjatoslav Olgovich and arranged the
dinner in his honour .
In 1156 Jury decided to strenghten the small town which protected the
borders of his princedom. According to an ancient legend before he
entrered Moskov his way had been blocked « with big
and strange animal with three heads of different color
». A monk who was with prince that time interpreted that
vision as follows « the apperance of the monster is a good
sign . In the place where we go the city will grow, it will be
the great and mighty as this huge animal. People of many
nations will unite in it, on what specifies different color of heads of
the vision. »
This vision increased the prince`s desire to base the city-fortress
here, on border of his princedom. The author of the chronicles wrote
about that: « the prince Jury climbed up to a mountain and,
having looked over the environs on both sides of Moscow-river and
Neglinnaja-river, ordered to construct a small wooden city soon and
name it - Moscow-town.»
Jury enclosed Moskov with the earth wall with the height 8 meters and
width 14 meters in the bottom, having topped it with oak walls.
The fortifications were hollow inside and were filled with the ground and stones. It was the first powerful circle of the strengthenings which existed for 150 years. This circle of the strengthenings got the name Kremlin 200 years later . The total territory extended in 5-6 times. Moscow became the important city and defensive boundary of Vladimir-Suzdal princedom. During it`s history Moscow had been burned several times: for the first time it was burnt during invasion of an army of khan Batyj in 1237-38. In the winter of 1238 Mongols approached Moscow. Inhabitants courageously defended, but the Kremlin could not withdraw the Tatar hordes. Moscow and neighboring villages was burnt again. The majority of inhabitants was killed or stolen in a captivity. Even so Moscow could quickly built up.
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